Rare Trees / Large Shrubs of Patagonia
Wanted to raise awareness of overlogged germplasm - the plants on page are in danger of scarcity to extinction... They often end up as kitchen cabinet doors, etc. are even logged from "protected" areas.
The tree species listed below have some protection from logging, but even the protected trees are being decimated by Beaver that were imported for the fur trade, logging (read that "poaching" logging) and by sheep and cattle grazing. Southern Patagonia spans parts of both Chile and Argentia.
Nothofagus obliqua - (Patagonian oak, roble or roble beech) (usually found in North America) is a deciduous tree from Chile and Argentina. It grows from 33 to 43° south latitude. The northern extent of this tree's range in Chile is considered to be the Vizcachas Mountains and La Campana National Park.
N. obliqua reaches a height of 50 meters (175 ft). and 2 m (6.5 ft) diameter.
It has gray-brownish or dark brown bark. The trunk is often forked. It has alternate leaves somewhat curled between the veins and the serrated margin. It has separate male and female flowers, both are small and are surrounded by green colored bracts, and rather inconspicuous.
In Chile is called roble hualle to young trees, whose wood is soft and yellowish, and roble pellín to old trees, which have their reddish hardwood. It has a good figure, is valued for its durability, and is used in furniture and construction.
Nothofagus pumilio - (lenga beech in Mapuche language) is a deciduous tree or shrub in the Nothofagaceae family that is native to the southern Andes range, in the temperate forests of Chile and Argentina to Tierra del Fuego, from 35° to 56° South latitude. This tree is in the same genus as the coihue. It regenerates easily after fires. The wood is of good quality, moderate durability, and is easy to work with. It is used in furniture, shingles and construction and sometimes as a substitute for American black cherry in the manufacturing of cabinets.
In southern Patagonia it grows to a height of up to 30 m (100 ft), and attains a trunk diameter of 1.5 m (5 ft). In more northern regions it grows only at heights above 1000 meters (3300 ft) in the form of a shrub. The leaves are dark green, elliptic toothed and 2–4 cm long, with irregularly lobed margins, and turn to yellow and reddish tones in autumn. The fruit is a small nut 4–7 mm long.
Nothofagus betuliodes - Magellan's beech or guindo, is native to southern Patagonia. In 1769 Sir Joseph Banks collected a specimen of the tree in Tierra del Fuego during Captain Cook's first voyage. It is an evergreen tree up to 25 m (82 ft) with a columnar appearance. In its natural environment it tolerates cold winters and absence of heat in summer. Specimens from the southern forests resist temperatures down to −20 °C (−4 °F).
Nothofagus Antarctica - (Antarctic Beech; in Spanish Ąire or Ąirre), is a deciduous tree or shrub native to southern Chile and Argentina from about 36°S to Tierra del Fuego (56° S), where it grows mainly in the diminishing temperate rainforest. Its occurrence on Hoste Island earns it the distinction of being the southernmost tree on earth. Nothofagus antarctica typically grows 10–25 m (32–80 ft) tall and has a slender trunk with scaly bark. The leaves are simple and alternate, growing 2-4.5 cm long, and often viscid, with a sweetly scented wax. The leaf color is medium green, turning yellow to orange in the fall. The leaves are broadly ovate to triangular, crinkly, rounded at the tips, irregularly and minutely toothed. The flowers are inconspicuous yellow-green catkins. The fruit is a 6 mm, very fragrant 4-valved capsule containing three small nuts.
Luma apiculata - (Chilean myrtle) is a species of flowering plant in the myrtle family, native to the central Andes between Chile and Argentina, at 33 to 45° south latitude. Growing to 10–15 m (33–49 ft) tall and wide, it is a vigorous, bushy, evergreen tree with fragrant flowers. The Chilean myrtle grows slowly, forming a small tree of around 10 to 15 m, rarely 20 m. Its trunk appears twisted and contorted and has smooth bark, coloured grey to bright orange-brown, which peels as the tree grows. It is evergreen, with small, fragrant, oval leaves 2.0 to 2.5 cm long and 1.5 broad, and profuse white flowers in early to midsummer. Its fruit is an edible black or blue berry 1.0 cm in diameter, ripe in early autumn.
Luma apiculata Synonyms include Eugenia apiculata DC., Myrceugenia apiculata (DC.) Niedenzu, and Myrceugenella apiculata (DC.) Kausel. Common names include arrayán (from a Spanish name for the related European myrtle), kelümamüll (orange-wood) (the Mapuche Native American name), shortleaf stopper, palo colorado and temu.