Africa - Rich in Resources and Robber Barons
Africa Maps African Countries Natural Resources
Tracy Turner ~ May 24, 2017
The continent of Africa is composed of 56 countries; some as familiar and as large as Egypt; others as tiny, remote and unheard of as Togo. This page seeks to provide insight into the natural resources of Africa as well as an extremely detailed map at the bottom of this page.
Sub-Saharan Africa has six of the world's 10 fastest-growing economies. North Africa has vast oil and natural gas deposits; the Sahara holds the most strategic nuclear ore; and natural resources such as coltan, gold, and copper, among many others, are abundant on the continent.
- Close to 20 million people employed in the USD 24 billion fisheries sector,
- 90 million depend on fisheries for livelihood,
- Africa is home to the second largest tropical forest,
- Over 70 percent of the Sub-Saharan population depend on forests and woodlands for livelihood.
- Land in Africa is an economic development asset as well as a social, cultural and ontological resource,
- It defines the social identity, the organisation of religious life, culture, gender, ethnicity and nationality.
- Water resources are contrasted across the continent,
- Africa is home to some of the highest annual rainfall in the heart of the Congo basin,
- It is also the second world’s driest continent.
- About 30% of the world known reserves of minerals,
- About 10% of oil and 8% of gas resources,
- Largest cobalt, diamonds, platinum, and uranium reserves in the world,
- Comparably low level of exploration,
- In 2012, mining, oil and gas accounted for 28% of the continent’s GDP,
Large multinational companies "doing business" in Africa frequently engage in price fixing (to lower taxes in Africa), income tax avoidance as well as thwarting environmental responsibilities… to make themselves rich and therein keep Africa “poor”. Some of the richest companies pay little to no income taxes, while many simultaneously are over-harvesting lumber, overfishing, mining and smelting Nickel, Copper, Platinum, etc.
The continent of Africa is the least explored area of the world save for Antarctica. The problem is large multinational companies engage in penny-pinching and tax-avoidance in Africa and vast profiteering outside of Africa. There are several documentaries (Stealing Africa and People & Power - How to Rob Africa) that give one a sense of what is happening in Africa. The conversion of food crops to biofuel is causing more starvation.
Africa is also dealing with the six big pesticide companies pushing GMO (read that pesticide-junkie-seeds) in Africa.
Algerian state-owned national oil company Sonatrach, the largest company in Africa, owns roughly 80 percent of total hydrocarbon production in Algeria, while International Oil Companies (IOCs) account for the remaining 20 percent.
Angola's economy is overwhelmingly driven by its oil sector. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 50% of GDP, more than 70% of government revenue, and more than 90% of the country's exports. Diamonds contribute an additional 5% to exports. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported. Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 17% per year from 2004 to 2008.
Benin's natural resources are limited and include small offshore oil reserves, marble, and limestone.
By volume, Botswana is the largest diamond producer in the world. Diamond mining fuels Botswana's economy (they contributed 70 percent to total exports in 2011), making it vulnerable to fluctuations in the global demand for luxury goods. Mineral natural resources also include copper, nickel, gold, and coal, and accounted for 9 percent of the country's total export earnings in 2011.
Until the global recession, Botswana maintained one of the world's highest economic growth rates since independence in 1966. Diamond mining fueled much of the expansion and currently accounts for one quarter of GDP, approximately 85% of export earnings, and about one-third of the government's revenues. Tourism is the secondary earner of foreign exchange and many Batswana engage in subsistence farming and cattle raising. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of $16,900 in 2016. Two major investment services rank Botswana as the best credit risk in Africa.
Botswana is one of the best Ecotourism destinations in the world.
Cotton and gold are Burkina Faso’s key exports - gold has accounted for about three-quarters of the country’s total export revenues. Burkina Faso’s economic growth and revenue depends on global prices for the two commodities. The Burkinabe economy experienced high levels of growth over the last few years, and the country has seen an upswing in gold exploration, production, and exports.
There are a variety of natural resources found in Burkina Faso, including manganese (used in stainless steel), limestone, marble, pumice, and salt. The country is also Africa's fourth-largest gold producer. Agriculture makes up 33% of its GDP and employs 80% of the working population.
Burundi is a producer of columbium (niobium) and tantalum ore, tin ore, and tungsten ore, and some deposits of gold that are designated for export. Burundi has natural resources of copper, cobalt, nickel, feldspar, phosphate rock, quartzite, and rare reserves of uranium, and vanadium.
Cameroon’s Natural resources: Oil, timber, hydroelectric power, natural gas, and cobalt, nickel. Agriculture products: timber, coffee, tea, bananas, cocoa, rubber, palm oil, and pineapples, cotton. Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, and cotton.
Cabo Verde’s economy is vulnerable to external shocks and depends on development aid, foreign investment, remittances, and tourism. The economy is service-oriented with commerce, transport, tourism, and public services accounting for about three-fourths of GDP. Tourism is the mainstay of the economy and depends on conditions in the euro-zone countries. Cabo Verde annually runs a high trade deficit financed by foreign aid and remittances from its large pool of emigrants; remittances as a share of GDP are one of the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry and mining, remains the backbone of the economy of the Central African Republic (CAR), with about 60% of the population living in outlying areas. The agricultural sector generates more than half of GDP. Timber and diamonds account for most export earnings, followed by cotton. Important constraints to economic development include the CAR's landlocked geography, poor transportation system, largely unskilled work force, and legacy of misdirected macroeconomic policies. Factional fighting between the government and its opponents remains a drag on economic revitalization. Distribution of income is extraordinarily unequal. Grants from France and the international community can only partially meet humanitarian needs.
Chad’s landlocked location results in high transportation costs for imported goods and dependence on neighboring countries. Oil and agriculture are mainstays of Chad’s economy. Oil provides about 60% of export revenues, while cotton, cattle, livestock, and gum Arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings. The services sector contributes about one-third of GDP and has attracted foreign investment mostly through telecommunications and banking. Nearly all of Chad’s fuel is provided by one domestic refinery, and unanticipated shutdowns occasionally result in shortages. The country regulates the price of domestic fuel, providing an incentive for black market sales.
Congo’s economy is a mixture of subsistence farming and hunting; an industrial sector based largely on oil and support services, and government spending. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing a major share of government revenues and exports. Natural gas is increasingly being converted to electricity rather than being flared, greatly improving energy prospects. New mining projects, particularly iron ore, which entered production in late 2013, may add as much as $1 billion to annual government revenue. Dem. Rep. Congo (Zaire) Limitless water, from the world's second-largest river, the Congo, a benign climate and rich soil make it fertile, beneath the soil abundant deposits of copper, gold, diamonds, cobalt, uranium, coltan and oil are just some of the minerals that should make it one of the world's richest countries.
Djibouti's key natural resources include salt, petroleum, gold, clay, marble, pumice, gypsum and diatomite. In 2010, the production and consumption of minerals in Djibouti was not internationally recognized. The country at this time produced salt and perlite along with other construction materials.
Egypt in addition to the agricultural capacity of the Nile Valley and Delta, Egypt's natural resources include petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, and iron ore. Crude oil is found primarily in the Gulf of Suez and in the Western Desert.
Equatorial Guinea’s natural resources include Fisheries, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Gold, Bauxite Diamonds and Tantalum.
Eritrea's key natural resources include natural gas, gold, copper, oil, zinc and potash. Almost 70% of the country is covered by the greenstone belt of Eritrea that has deposits of precious metals and volcanic massive sulfide (VMS). Deposits of barite, copper, asbestos, silver, lead, iron ore, potash, zinc, talc and feldspar were exploited in 2010.
Ethiopia has small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, and natural gas. It has extensive hydropower potential. Of the total land area, about 20 percent is under cultivation, although the amount of potentially arable land is larger.
Gabon has abundant natural resources of Gas, timber, oil, manganese, iron, gold, silver, diamonds, niobium, phosphates, lead, zinc, baryte and talc…
Gambia has very few exploited mineral deposits. Some amounts of clay, sand, and gravel are excavated for local use. Foreign investors have been granted licenses to explore offshore blocks for potential petroleum and natural gas reserves, but these actions have not yet yielded any production.
Ghana Agriculture - products: peanuts, pearl millet, sorghum, rice, maize, cassava (tapioca), palm kernels; cattle, sheep, goats; forest and fishery resources not fully exploited. Commodities: peanuts and peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels.
Guinea-Bissau's key natural resources include phosphates, granite, clay, bauxite, unexploited deposits of petroleum and limestone. In 2010, the mineral production in the country was restrained to small-scale production of granite, sand and gravel, clay and limestone.
Guinea has abundant natural resources including 25% or more of the world's known bauxite reserves. Guinea also has diamonds, gold, and other metals. The country has great potential for hydroelectric power. Bauxite and alumina are currently the only major exports.
Ivory Coast chief crops include coffee, bananas, cacao and oil palms, which produce palm oil and kernels. Natural resources include petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron, cobalt, bauxite, copper, gold, nickel, tantalum, silica sand, clay, palm oil, and hydropower.
Natural resources that are found in Kenya include: limestone, soda ash, salt, gemstones, fluorspar, zinc, diatomite, oil, gas, gypsum, wildlife and hydropower. Kenya is known by some as the world's best ecotourism destination.
Lesotho natural resources: Water, agricultural and grazing land, some diamonds and other minerals. Lesotho is an exporter of excess labor. Agriculture products: Corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley; livestock.
Liberia is a nation rich with natural resources including iron ore, gold, diamonds, natural rubber, vast forest for logging and timber harvesting, and vast agriculture land for ensuring food security.
Libya Arabic is the main language. Apart from petroleum, Libya's other natural resources are natural gas and gypsum. Its economy depends primarily on the oil sector, which represents over 95 per cent of export earnings. Moreover, the oil and gas sector accounts for about 60 per cent of total GDP.
Madagascar has a number of natural resources, including graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, rare Earth elements, salt, quartz, tar sands, semi-precious stones and mica. There are also fishing areas offshore and potential for hydropower.
Malawi natural resources: Limestone, uranium (potential), coal, bauxite, phosphates, graphite, granite, black granite, aquamarine, tourmaline, rubies, sapphires, rare earths. Agriculture products: Tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, corn, potatoes, cassava (tapioca), sorghum, pulses; groundnuts, Macadamia nuts; cattle, goats. Malawi is a world-class ecotourism destination.
Mali has considerable natural resources, with gold, uranium, phosphates, kaolinite, salt and limestone being most widely exploited. Mali is estimated to have in excess of 17,400 tons of uranium (measured + indicated + inferred). In 2012, a further uranium mineralized north zone was identified.
Mauritania’s export value of iron ore increased by about 91% to $997 million from $522 million in the previous year. The country also produced crude oil, gold, cement, quartz, copper, gypsum, salt, and steel in that year. In 2011, the mining sector of Mauritania generated $375 million revenue for the country.
Mauritius is a prime ecotourism destination…
The main minerals in Mauritius are basalts produced from local coral limestone and coral sand. There are also polymetallic nodules that occur on the ocean floor at about 4,000 m depth around Mauritius. They contain more than 15% of both iron and manganese and more than 0.35% cobalt.
Morocco’s most important natural resources are the fish, as well as oranges, olives, phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, and salt. Morocco is also known for its crops of dates, grain, tobacco and sugar beets.
Mozambique possesses considerable quantities of natural resources. Contrary to many (African) countries, however, Mozambique is still predominantly virgin soil: most natural resources are yet to be explored, including natural gas, coal, mineral sands, hydropower and most likely oil as well. Mozambique ecotourism is unrivaled anywhere in Africa.
Namibia’s natural resources: Diamonds, copper, gold, uranium, lead, tin, zinc, salt, vanadium, fisheries, and wildlife; suspected deposits of oil, coal, and iron ore. Agriculture products: Livestock, millet, fish and fish products, grapes, and wool.
Niger’s natural resources: Uranium, Coal, and Iron ore, Tin, Phosphates, Gold, Molybdenum and Gypsum.
Apart from petroleum, Nigeria's other natural resources include natural gas, tin, iron ore, coal, and limestone, niobium, lead, zinc and arable land. The oil and gas sector accounts for about 35 per cent of gross domestic product, and petroleum exports revenue represents over 90 per cent of total exports revenue.
The economy of Reunion has traditionally been based on agriculture. Sugarcane has been the primary crop for more than a century, and in some years it accounts for 85% of exports. The government has been pushing the development of a tourist industry to relieve high unemployment, which amounts to more than 40% of the labor force.
The gap in Reunion between the well off and the poor is large and accounts for the persistent social tensions. The outbreak of severe rioting in February 1991 illustrated the seriousness of socio-economic tensions. However, this gap has been closing in the last 15 years.
Rwanda’s resources include: Gold, Cassiterite (tin ore), Wolframite (tungsten ore) and Natural Gas.
Sčo Tomé and Principe - The economy of Sčo Tomé and Príncipe, while traditionally dependent on cocoa, is experiencing considerable changes due to investment in the development of its oil industry in the oil-rich waters of the Gulf of Guinea. In 2003, the government agreed a Joint Development Zone over the area that gives Sao Tome 40% of revenues. Geologists estimate that the Gulf of Guinea zone (Niger Delta province) holds more than 10 billion barrels (1.6 km³) of oil, although no reserves have yet been proved.
Senegal’s natural resources: Fish, peanuts, phosphate, iron ore, gold, titanium. Industries: Agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials.
Seychelles economy is based on fishing, tourism, the processing of coconuts and vanilla, coir (coconut fiber) rope, boat building, printing, furniture and beverages. Agricultural products include cinnamon, sweet potatoes, cassava (tapioca), bananas, poultry and tuna.
The mining industry of Sierra Leone accounted for 4.5 percent of the country's GDP in 2007 and minerals made up 79 percent of total export revenue with diamonds accounting for 46 percent of export revenue in 2008. The main minerals mined in Sierra Leone are diamonds, rutile, bauxite, gold, iron and limonite.
Somalia has untapped reserves of numerous natural resources, including uranium, iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt and natural gas. Due to its proximity to the oil-rich Gulf Arab states such as Saudi Arabia and Yemen, the nation is also believed to contain substantial unexploited reserves of oil.
South Africa is world famous for ecotourism.
Mining and Natural Resources: South Africa is the world's biggest producer of gold and platinum and one of the leading producers of base metals and coal. The country's diamond industry is the fourth-largest in the world, with only Botswana, Canada and Russia producing more diamonds each year.
One of the major natural features of South Sudan is the River Nile whose many tributaries have sources in the country. The region also contains many natural resources such as petroleum, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, and hydropower.
Swaziland possesses the following natural resources: asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc.
Natural Resources in Tanzania… from wealth in agriculture, forestry and wildlife land, Tanzania is also very rich in minerals such as gold, diamond, iron, coal, nickel, tanzanite, uranium and natural gas. Recently natural offshore gas deposits have been discovered.
Tanzania is one of Africa's most sought-after ecotourism destinations. from USAToday: "Some of Tanzania's most outstanding and renowned natural features are the Serengeti, Mount Kilimanjaro, Lake Tanganyika and the sands of Zanzibar. Besides these spots, however, Tanzania is still unknown to many Americans. Ecotourism is changing that, pushing beyond the usual safari circuit to explore how the dignified people of Tanzania live in this beautiful land.".
Togo resources: Phosphates (main source of foreign exchange), limestone, marble, arable land. Agriculture products: Coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish. Industries: Phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement; handicrafts, textiles, beverages.
Tunisia resources: petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, and zinc, salt.
Uganda the country has largely untapped reserves of both crude oil and natural gas. While agriculture accounted for 56 percent of the economy in 1986, with coffee as its main export, it has now been surpassed by the services sector, which accounted for 52 percent of GDP in 2007.
Zambia has numerous unparalleled ecotourism destinations. Zambia resources: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower, petroleum, tin, nickel, bauxite, phosphate, Natural gas, fishing, emeralds, rivers for hydroelectric power.
Zanzibar is rich in eco-tourism. Zanzibar's geographic and ecological assets, including its extensive coastline, flora, fauna, and tropical climate, create an optimal environment to examine coastal ecology and natural resource management.
Zimbabwe resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals.
Most African nations still have much local, subsistence farming (Bananas, Cassava, Corn, Maize, Sorghum, etc.). The six big “seed” read seed as **pesticide** companies have exploitation of Africa high on their radars. Why Seven African Nations Joined Anti-Monsanto Protests.
When you see or read Monsanto articles, be sure to read them as “Syngenta, Dow, Dupont, BASF, Bayer and Monsanto”. All six have numerous projects/businesses in African countries.
AREVA’s radioactive legacy in the desert towns of Niger. In one of the poorest countries in the world, ranking last in the Human Development Index of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), where more than 40% of children are underweight for their age, water and access to improved water sources is scarce and almost three quarters of the population are illiterate, the French nuclear giant AREVA extracts precious—and deadly—natural resources, earning billions for its Fortune 5002 corporation, and leaving little behind but centuries of environmental pollution and health risks for the citizens of Niger.
There are currently fifteen African countries involved in war, or are experiencing post-war conflict and tension. In West Africa, the countries include Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and Togo. In East Africa, the countries include Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda. Nothing decimates a population and an economy like conflict. Conflict also breeds corruption in government and promotes "commerce" that benefits the rich few.
Top Africa 10 Wealth list from itafrica.com:
1. Nigeria: GDP – $594.257 billion The most populous country in Africa is a major contender on this list, its manufacturing sector being the third largest in Africa while it contributes a considerable share of the world’s oil. Taking into account this country’s population of 170 million, Nigeria is on track to becoming one of the 20 largest economies in the world by 2020.
2. South Africa: GDP – $341.216 billion South Africa is popularly known for its mineral resources such as gold and diamond but the Gold Rush ended back in the 19th century. There are more things to look forward to in South Africa besides its jewels. Major cities like Johannesburg and Cape Town offer a unique experiences that can offer scenic routes to mountain ranges by the ocean.
3. Egypt: GDP – $284.860 billion Egypt has one of the longest histories of any modern country, arising in the tenth millennium BCE as one of the world’s first nation states.
4. Algeria: GDP – $227.802 billion Oil and gas exports have placed Algeria on this list. Much of its wealth is received from oil deposits deep within the North African soil. Also rich in natural minerals, it is suggested that the ancient Romans collected stones and marbles from quarries in what is now known as Algeria. You can find onyx, red and white marbles, iron, lead, and zinc in large quantities. It’s capital city, Algiers offers rare beauty in the intricate architecture of its most famous buildings.
5. Morocco: GDP – $112.552 billion Morocco was named the first most competitive economy in North Africa. Tourism, telecoms, textiles and agriculture are Morocco’s biggest biggest money pullers.
6. Sudan: GDP – $112.552 billion More than once, we have mentioned oil and gas as the main source of income for countries on this list. Sudan also falls into that category but in a more diverse way. It depends on oil but with a third of its GDP contributed by agriculture. Cotton and peanuts constitute its major agricultural exports. You may not notice a “Made in Sudan” tag on the shirt you buy in Khartoum but cotton from Sudan has fueled the textile industry in many parts of the world.
7. Kenya: GDP – $53.40 billion The capital, Nairobi, is a regional commercial hub. The economy of Kenya is the largest by GDP in Southeast and Central Africa. Agriculture is a major employer; the country traditionally exports tea and coffee and has more recently begun to export fresh flowers to Europe. The service industry is also a major economic driver. Kenya is a member of the East African Community. Compared to other African countries, Kenya enjoys relatively high political and social stability.
8. Angola: GDP – $49.857 billion Angola has a large deposit of oil and gas resources, diamonds, and bountiful agricultural land. Still recovering from the 27-year civil war that lasted from 1975-2002, Angola has made efforts to revive its economy with heavy oil and agricultural exports. Cities like Luanda are undergoing major reconstruction to make Angola a top African destination.
9. Libya: GDP – $49.341 billion The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which accounts for 80% of GDP and 97% of exports. Libya holds the largest proven oil reserves in Africa and is an important contributor to the global supply of light, sweet crude.Apart from petroleum, the other natural resources are natural gas and gypsum. The International Monetary Fund estimated Libya’s real GDP growth at 122% in 2012 and 16.7% in 2013, after a 60% plunge in 2011.
10. Tunisia: GDP – $49.122 billion Oil, tourism and car manufacturing parts are the name of the game in Tunisia. It is one of the wealthiest countries in Africa so you won’t wander too far into its cities like Tunis before finding a pleasant spot to relax. The city is covered with bits of opulence from as far back as the 12th century. Year-round sunshine and the affordable Tunisian lifestyle have drawn tourists here who now call this place home.
Tags: africa african natural resources gold iron country africa petroleum economy agriculture copper diamonds resources uranium export salt limestone bauxite coal production zinc exports reserves deposits sector phosphates government hydropower revenue countries mining cotton world nickel development fishing fisheries fish land minerals lead clay foreign products agricultural multinationals corporations companies cobalt gypsum Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Rep Chad Congo Dem. Rep. Congo (Zaire) Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Bissau Guinea Ivory Coast Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Reunion Rwanda Sčo Tomé and Principe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zanzibar Zimbabwe list of natural resources in africa mineral resources in africa which country has the most natural resources in the world natural resources in africa pdf richest country in minerals in africa resources of africa top twenty richest country in africa what natural resources are found in south africa africa natural resources list what natural resources are found in south africa africa natural resources facts natural resources in africa pdf african natural resources map resources of africa map nearby oceans in africa mineral resources in africa map of african resources africa natural resources statistics south africa natural resources map africa rich in resources major natural resources of africa natural resources found in africa sub saharan africa resources
FAIR USE NOTICE: This site contains copyrighted articles and information about environmental, political, human rights, economic, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. This news and information is displayed without profit for educational purposes, in accordance with, of the US Copyright Law.